The general election on May 9, 2018 has had a huge impact on Malaysia’s political landscape, so far.
Since that day, Malaysians have witnessed many unexpected events, including calls for several by-elections and state elections for various reasons.
During the last legislature, a total of 12 by-elections were held, including four in 2018, five in 2019 and three in 2020.
Three by-elections – in Batu Sapi and Bugaya in Sabah and Gerik in Perak – did not take place after the king issued emergency proclamations to curb the spread of Covid-19.
However, on October 6 of this year, Her Majesty consented to revoke six emergency orders and proclamations that prevented the three by-elections from taking place.
In the past four years, the first of the by-elections was held just three months after the 2018 general election, which was for the Sungai Kandis state seat in Selangor on August 4, 2018, which saw Pakatan Harapan (PH) keep the seat.
The other three by-elections held in the same year were for the Balakong and Seri Setia state seats in Selangor on September 8 and the Port Dickson parliamentary seat on October 13. All seats were won by PH.
In 2019, the first by-election was held on January 26 in the Cameron Highlands parliamentary constituency, where Barisan Nasional (BN) retained the seat. The coalition also won the Semenyih state seat in Selangor in the March 2 by-election.
On April 13, 2019, BN contested and retained the Rantau state seat in Negeri Sembilan and on May 11 of the same year, PH won the by-election for the parliamentary seat of Sandakan in Sabah.
At the end of 2019, a by-election was held for the parliamentary seat of Tanjung Piai in Johor on November 16, which saw the BN score a huge victory.
In 2020, the by-election for the Kimanis’ parliamentary seat in Sabah was held on January 18, which saw the BN claim yet another victory. He also retained the Chini State seat in Pahang in the July 4 by-election.
The last by-election was for the Slim state seat in Perak on August 29, 2020, which BN retained again.
Four state elections were held during the 14th legislature – in Sabah, Malacca, Sarawak and Johor.
In the Sabah elections of September 26, 2020, Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (GRS) won a simple majority to take over the leadership of the Warisan State government.
GRS, which includes Perikatan Nasional (PN) and BN, as well as its affiliate Parti Bersatu Sabah, won 38 of the 73 seats in the assembly.
On November 20, 2021, the Malacca elections were held and BN won 21 of the 28 contested seats, while PH won five and PN won two.
The polls were called following the dissolution of the Malacca Assembly on October 4 the same year after four MPs withdrew their support for Chief Minister Sulaiman Md Ali.
Less than a month after that, elections in Sarawak were also held on December 18, 2021, and the Gabungan Parti Sarawak led by Sarawak Prime Minister Abang Johari Openg won 76 of the 82 seats up for grabs.
A total of 349 candidates showed up in the polls, the highest turnout in state election history.
In 2022, Johor’s elections were held on March 12, with the BN winning a two-thirds majority, winning 40 of the 56 contested seats.
PH won 11 seats, PN won three, and PKR and Muda won one each. – Bernama, October 10, 2022.